US Orthopaedic Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960. Part 3: Hungary

US Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960

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Photos from the petegrafton collection

Part 3: Hungary summer 1959 & Spring 1960.

The Background

Us Doc, an orthopaedic specialist, in Prague, summer 1959. His name is believed to be Dr A Seyfried.

We have, at the moment, no idea how it was that the American Doc, believed to be Dr A Seyfried, an orthopaedic specialist, was visiting Communist controlled countries in the Eastern Bloc. (My very grateful thanks to Liz Willis, former librarian with the Medical Research Council, London, for searching and locating in Pubmed papers written by a Dr A Seyfried. By their speciality – mostly in arthritic and rheumatoid conditions, and period of publication – 1953 – 1999,  and that these papers were mostly published in Polish specialist publications, and one published in a Czech  publication, we can be reasonably sure this is the one and same person. The full Pubmed list is at the foot of this Post.)

The Cold War was at its height – the Hungarian Uprising had been put down by Soviet tanks and military in October 1956 –  just three years before these photos were taken in Hungary.

It may be that Dr.Seyfried, and a colleague were working for, or attached to the World Health Organisation in Geneva.  In transparencies from Czechoslovakia a Mercedes with Swiss plates is shown.

The photos – Kodachrome transparencies – were mostly taken by a colleague – possibly also a visiting US doctor – of the “US Doc”.  They were bought on ebay in 2008.  The seller had additional sets of photos taken  – by the same source –  of visits to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1958 and 1959.

Kodachrome transparency and mount, processed September 1958.

Only a  very few of the transparency mounts had an identifying name – place, or person. The majority didn’t.  The ebay seller batched the sales under country, and year.  The year can be identified by the Kodak lab  date stamp on the transparency mounts.

The transparencies shown here are selected first by the orthopaedic interest, and then by local photos, outings and so on.  They are a rare colour chronicle of aspects of everyday life, and civic life,  in countries that were to live under Communist/military control  in Eastern Europe for a further 32 years from when they were taken. And, of course, they show orthopaedic practices and care of children and adults at that time.

Please use the Leave a Reply facility to get in touch if you can identify towns, places, people, or anything you spot and can clarify.  It would be very much appreciated.

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Hungary

Orthopaedic  Practice

Dr Seyfried on the steps of one of the entrances to the Budapest Medical University. He is standing in front of the Surgery Clinic sign. Dr. Pal Rubanyi , presumed to be the department Director, is listed as University Teacher – see detail below.  Budapest, early Spring 1960.

Dr Seyfried standing next to Budapest Medical University Surgical Clinic sign, early Spring, 1960.  Crop of above photograph.

US or Hungarian medical colleague standing by the Mercedes the US Doc seems to be using on this early Spring 1960 trip to Hungary and Budapest. Possibly the entrance – or one of the entrances – to the Medical University is just up the street.

Nurse applying plaster to a patient’s wrist. Unknown clinic, but assumed to be in Budapest.  Early Spring, 1960.

Assumed to be orthopaedic patients doing exercises using dumb bells. Believed to be a Budapest clinic, early Spring, 1960.

Assumed to be orthopaedic patients on mats in exercise area. Unknown clinic, probably in Budapest. Variation of above photo.  Early Spring, 1960.

The sign outside the National Institute of Motor Therapy building, director Dr. Andras Peto.  Budapest, Early Spring, 1960.

The street sign of the National Institute of Motor Therapy, Director Dr Andras Peto .   Early Spring, Budapest, 1960.

Dr András Petö (1893 – 1967) developed a theory and practice of physical rehabilitation of children with motor disorders such as cerebral palsy and brain injury.  His approach became known in Britain in the 1980s following two BBC TV documentaries: Standing Up for Joe (1986) and To Hungary with Love (1987). His work was the foundation of what is known as  conductive education, and  is now, in some countries, also applied to adults with Parkinson’s disease and after-stroke conditions.

It is not known whether Dr Seyfried was aware of Dr. Peto’s work before he visited Hungary, or whether Hungarian medical colleagues mentioned him to Dr.Seyfried once he had arrived in Hungary.  If Dr Seyfried met Dr Petö there are no surviving photos of them in this collection.

Buildings of the National Institute of Motor Therapy, Budapest.  Note the Communist Red Star.   Early Spring, 1960.

A partial view of the one storey building of the National Institute of Motor Therapy, Budapest, early Spring, 1960.

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Budapest

Us Doc, Dr Seyfried, on the left, standing at the entrance of the Grand Hotel, with possibly a Hungarian colleague.  Probably Budapest, Summer 1959.  The location of the hotel is problematical as in 2018 there are two Grand Hotels in Budapest.  One is in the centre of Budapest and the second is on Margit Island, home to Palatinus Strand and Margit Island gardens.  (See 1959 photos below.)  What we are looking at in this photo is possibly the hotel on Margit Island, now known as the Danubius Grand Hotel Margitsziget.  The architectural features on the first floor are, in 2018, very similar to this photo from 1959, but the ground floor details and entrance has since changed.

The Fisherman’s Bastion – a nineteenth century fortress with seven turreted lookout towers. Budapest, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried standing near ruins, with the Fisherman’s Bastion in the background. Budapest,1959.

Central Budapest, summer 1959.

Central Budapest, summer’s evening, 1959.

Budapest, summer 1959.

Central Budapest, early Spring, 1960.

The Great Synagogue, Budapest, also known as the Dohany Street synagogue.  It is the largest synagogue in Europe and the second largest in the world.  (The largest synagogue is in New York.)  Early Spring, 1960.

Budapest street, with Communist Red Flag and Hungarian flags either side, Spring 1960.

The above street photo with the Communist Red Flag, flanked by two Hungarian flags is interesting as the inclusion of the Communist Red Star and hammer and sickle emblem within the colours of the Hungarian flag was symbolically torn out by those protesting against and fighting against the Hungarian Communist Party and the Soviet crushing of the October 1956 Hungarian Uprising.  It is not clear whether as a post-Uprising concession the Hungarian Communist regime dropped the red star and hammer and sickle from the Hungarian flag.

Hungarian Communist flag with Red Star and Hammer and Sickle symbol.

Hungarian flag with the Communist Red Star and Hammer & Sickle symbol ripped out, mounted on a captured Soviet tank.  The heavy shelling of the building and displaced slates is due to Soviet tank fire.

Hungarian flags in Budapest street with ripped out Communist Red Star and Hammer & Sickle, October 1958.  Unknown photographer.

The Hungarian Uprising started with a student demonstration in Budapest on 23 October, 1956 and quickly spread to workers who set up Workers Councils ensuring that services such as electricity and the radio, etc kept running.  The Uprising, also known as the Revolution, spread throughout Hungary.  Dithering at first, the Russians launched an armed intervention predominantly using tanks which often fired indiscriminately.  By 10 November the Revolution had been crushed by the Russian Soviets.  Approximately 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops died.

Jack Esten was in Budapest when this Russian colonel drew his revolver and endeavoured to deprive him of his camera.”  Caption and source: Photography Year Book 1958.  Photo Jack Esten.  Jack Esten worked for the British Daily Herald as a Second World War photographer and was active into the 1950s.

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Budapest – Palatinus Strand & Margit Island gardens

Palatinus Strand entrance, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried looking at a black nude statue on the steps at the entrance of Palatinus Strand, Budapest, Summer, 1959.  In photos from the 1940s the nude was white and her right arm was stretched upwards.  This black nude was perhaps temporary whilst the white nude was being restored.  Note the board  for wheelchair use next to the statues in both photos.  The white nude with outstretched right arm was back in place in the 1960s, and is still – 2018 – in position.

Palatinus Strand, with white nude with out-stretched right arm, and Fiat derivative police car. The Palatinus Strand sign changed, too, from 1959, and remains – 2018 – as seen in the above photo.  Photo  Circa mid 1960s. Photographer Unknown.

Sunbathers in swimming costumes, near one of the swimming pools, Palatinus Strand, summer 1959.

Palatinus Strand is a very popular collection of open air swimming pools and spa on the Margit Island in the Danube.  First opened in 1919, with a simple beach, it was significantly developed in the late 1930s.  Water to the pools is supplied by thermal springs.   Adjacent to Palatinus Strand there are popular public gardens. If  Dr Seyfried or his American colleague took photos of the open air baths themselves, they have not survived in this collection.

1940 colour photo of Palatinus Strand baths.  Photographer/source Unknown.

People in swimming costumes at Palatinus Strand, summer 1959.

Flower beds, swimming costumed people, and glimpsed in the distance (and in photo below) one of the pools at Palatinus Strand.  Summer, 1959.

Palatinus Strand, summer 1959.

People sitting and standing under the shade of trees near Palatinus Strand.  Note the parked motorbikes and mopeds in the background.  In the foreground a display of  for-sale wrapped bon-bons.

Refreshment cafe by Palatinus Strand and the gardens on Margit Island.  Budapest, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried takes a photo of his US colleague, believed to be the gardens on Margit Island, Budapest. Summer 1959.

Visitors to the gardens on Margit Island, Budapest. Summer 1959.

Dr. Seyfried by an ice-cream seller, believed to be the gardens on Margit Island, Budapest. Summer 1959.

Budapest buses, believed to be by the gardens on Margit Island. Summer 1959.

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Dr A Seyfried standing outside Szechenyihegy railway station. Near Budapest, early Spring 1960.

At Szechenyihegy the Hungarian Communist Regime in the late 1940s built a narrow gauge children’s railway which became very popular, and remains popular as an excursion destination in post Communist Hungary.

Detail of Dr Seyfried standing near Szechenyihegy railway station.  Early Spring, 1960.

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Budapest – View from a High Window

View from a high window/balcony, over-looking the Danube, central Budapest, early Spring 1960.

Here are a series, taken on different times of the day, and different days from the same viewpoint.  It is assumed this was a hotel that Dr Seyfried and his US medical colleague were staying at during their early Spring visit to Budapest and Hungary.

Tug and barges on the Danube, Budapest, early Spring 1960.

War/1945 liberation memorial by the Danube, Budapest early Spring 1960.

Six open topped lorries with either troops or police or civilians parked near the War/1945 liberation memorial by the Danube. Budapest early Spring, 1960.  Note the stone parapet of the hotel/building balcony foreground.

Close up of the assembled open top lorries with military, police or civilians. Early Spring, 1960.

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View of Budapest rooftops, early Spring, 1960.

Dr Seyfried standing on the steps of a large unidentified church, believed to be in  Budapest. Summer 1959.

Looking towards Budapest from elevated rural position. Early Spring 1960.

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Somewhere in Hungary

Dr Seyfried looking down the Danube, summer 1959.  Unidentified location, Hungary.

Overcast day, somewhere by the Danube, early Spring, 1960.

War/1945 Liberation plinth in town square, with two male cyclists and two buses. Possibly a town near Budapest. Early Spring 1960.

Inter war or just post war village housing, with electricity wires and lone cyclist. Unidentified location, Hungary. Early Spring, 1960.

Cobbled main street in a small rural town, Hungary. Note the antennae on the far building on the right. Possibly a barracks town, or ex-estate landowner town. Early Spring, 1960.

Dr Seyfried standing in the middle of rural road after a spell of rain, with buildings, including a church in the near distance. Horse manure on the road and a man and women in a field. Unidentified location, Hungary. Early Spring, 1960.

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Articles and Papers written or co-written by Dr A Seyfried between 1999 – 1953.  Source Pubmed.

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Coming next, late April 2018

Dawlish:  Is it a Bird, Is it a Plane?

A Happening.

Photos by Pete Grafton.

Dawlish, Summer 2016.

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US Doc in Eastern Block 1958 – 1960. Part 2 Czechoslovakia

US Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960

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photos from the petegrafton collection

Part 2:  Czechoslovakia Summer 1959.

The Background

US Doc, an orthopaedic specialist, in Prague, summer 1959. His name is believed to be Dr.A. Seyfried

We have, at the moment, no idea how it was that the American Doc, believed to be Dr A Seyfried, an orthopaedic specialist, was visiting Communist controlled countries in the Eastern Bloc. (My very grateful thanks to Liz Willis, former librarian with the Medical Research Council, London, for searching and locating in Pubmed papers written by a Dr A Seyfried. By their speciality – mostly in arthritic and rheumatoid conditions, and period of publication – 1953 – 1999,  and that these papers were mostly published in Polish specialist publications, and one published in a Czech  publication, we can be reasonably sure this is the one and same person. The full Pubmed list is at the foot of this Post.)

The Cold War was at its height – the Hungarian Uprising had been put down by Soviet tanks and military in October 1956 –  two and a half years before these photos were taken in the then Czechoslovakia.

It may be that Dr.Seyfried, and a colleague were working for, or attached to the World Health Organisation in Geneva.  In transparencies from Czechoslovakia a Mercedes with Swiss plates is shown.

The photos – Kodachrome transparencies – were mostly taken by a colleague – possibly also a visiting US doctor – of the “US Doc”.  They were bought on ebay in 2008.  The seller had additional sets of photos taken  – by the same source –  of visits to Poland and Hungary in 1958, 1959 and 1960.

Kodachrome transparency and mount, processed September 1958.

Only a  very few of the transparency mounts had an identifying name – place, or person. The majority didn’t.  The ebay seller batched the sales under country, and year.  The year can be identified by the Kodak lab  date stamp on the transparency mounts.

The transparencies shown here are selected first by the orthopaedic interest, and then by local photos, outings and so on.  They are a rare colour chronicle of aspects of everyday life, and civic life,  in countries that were to live under Communist/military control  in Eastern Europe for a further 32 years from when they were taken. And, of course, they show orthopaedic practices and care of children and adults at that time.

Please use the Leave a Reply facility to get in touch if you can identify towns, places, people, or anything you spot and can clarify.  It would be very much appreciated.

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Czechoslovakia

Orthopaedic Practice

Entrance to the Universita Karlova Klinika pro Orthoepedickov, Praha/Prague.  Us Doc – Dr A Seyfried centre – with Professor Miroslav Jaros, the Clinic Director, to his right. Summer 1959.  (My very grateful thanks to Vaclav Hajek, Public Relations Officer at the Charles University, Praha/Prague for identifying Professor Miroslav Jaros and for providing a link to information about him. Also to Karel Cerny, Head of the Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, for additional information)  For this information on Professor Jaros see Footnote (1).

A formal photo of Professor Miroslav Jaros.  photo source fnmotol.cz

Professor Miroslav Jaros, the Clinical Director of the Karlova University Orthopaedic Clinic to the left of the man in the white shirt. Prague. Summer 1959.

Same location. Right to left: The Us Doc, Dr. A Seyfried on the left, standing next to Professor Miroslav Jaros.  2nd on the right probably a US colleague of Dr Seyfried.  The gent in the brown jacket is possibly Czechoslovakian.  Prague, summer 1959.

Dr A Seyfried and un-identified gent in front of a wall of Government, government agency and cultural posters. Assumed to be Prague, summer 1959.

Orthopaedic clinic, believed to be in Prague. Lamp off.

Lamp on, for photography.

Orthopaedic clinic, Prague with Czechoslovakian orththopedic doctor, children and nurses.  Summer 1959.

Orthopaedic clinic, Prague, summer 1959.

Orthopaedic clinic Prague with nurse helping young child. Summer 1959.

Exercises for young children, orthopaedic clinic Prague, with male and female staff.  Summer 1959.

Young man using sticks, overseen by Czechoslovakian Orthopaedic specialist. Prague, summer 1959.

Believed to be a Czechoslovakian orthopaedic specialist, on roof of clinic building. Probably Prague skyline. Summer 1959.   Doubtful that it is evening – more likely wrongly exposed photo. (Transparency film has a low tolerance to incorrect exposure for lighting.  In the 1950s there were no auto exposure, auto focus cameras.  All settings had to be done manually.  Getting the correct light setting required a handheld light meter, or guess work.)

Their right to left: US Doc – Dr A Seyfried, with Czechoslovakian colleagues. The gent on the left is possibly a host from a Czechoslovakian Government tourist agency or a “Committee for Friendship & Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries”. The gentleman to his right is possible the same person on the roof in the photo above.

The Czech gent is now taking the photo and Dr A Seyfriend’s US colleague – who took the above photo –  is  now in the picture.

Dr A Seyfried playing skittles with Czechoslovakian colleagues. Believed to be Prague, summer 1959. As noted earlier, getting the wrong camera exposure for lighting – in this case only slightly – can cause a colour/darkness shift when using transparency film.

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Prague/Praha

View of Prague, the River Vltava and on the horizon the Stalin Monument.  Summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried having his photo taken on the Charles Bridge, Prague with the Stalin Monument on the hill behind him.  Summer 1959.

Photo Crop of Dr Seyfried with the Stalin Monument on the hill behind him.  Prague, Summer 1959.

The Stalin Monument Prague, circa 1955.   photo Miroslav Vopata.

The Stalin Monument in Prague was the world’s largest Stalin Monument, completed in 1955.   Made of granite it took five years to build.  The day before it was unveiled the statue’s sculptor Otaker Švec took his life. The Stalin Monument survived another seven years. It was demolished – literally blown up – in 1962 on the orders of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, with permission from Moscow. (2.)  Residents of Budapest took matters into their own hand and decapitated the head of their Stalin statue in October 1956, during the short-lived Hungarian Uprising – crushed by the invading tanks of the Soviet Union.

Budapest October 1956 and the head of Stalin, and Russian tank. Photographer Unknown.

The US doctor was visiting Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Bloc two and a half years after the crushing of the Hungarian Uprising.

The Swiss registered Mercedes car that Dr Seyfried and his US colleague used during their visit to Czechoslovakia. Near the centre of Prague.  Summer 1959.

The Powder Tower Prague,  seen from Celetna, Summer 1959.  It got its name as it was originally used to store gunpowder.

Unidentified tower, assumed to be Prague. Summer 1959.  The sign literally reads “Rapid shoe handling” – roughly Quick shoe repairs. U Prihodu does not appear on any Prague or Czech online maps, though there are one or two pensions with the name Prihodu in the Czech Republic.

Charles Bridge and Bridge Tower. It looks like Dr.Seyfried taking a photo. Prague, Summer 1959.  The gent in the snazzy grey suit is with him, possibly a Czechoslovakian colleague or host.

Dr Seyfried, with Czechoslovakian host (?) having their photo taken on Charles Bridge. The two gents passing them are from the Indian sub-continent. At this time the Soviet Union and their Eastern Bloc “colonies” encouraged visitors, students and exchange specialists from the non-aligned world. Later, from the 1960s onwards, this would also include countries that received military and economic help from the Soviet Union, such as Cuba and Angola.  Prague, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried standing by the Edvard Capek Bazar in the Old Town Prague, summer 1959.  The Bazar was founded in 1911, selling hardware and bric-a-brac. Despite different regimes and governments: Hapsburg, inter-war democracy, Nazi, Communist, post-communist, it is still in business.  (The shop front has changed though.)  It was such a Prague feature that a Government Czechoslovakian film unit did a short piece on it in 1966. (2)

Short film from 1966 on the Eduard Capek bazar in the Old Town, Prague.  See footnote (2). Source SFU, on You Tube.

Dr Seyfried standing near an enclosed park with a modern Bird effigy and old church in background. Believed to be Prague, summer 1959.

Rooftops and spires, Old Town, Prague, summer 1959.

Looking over roof tops towards the Castle on the horizon, Prague, summer 1959.

High view looking over roof tops with the River Vltava, Prague, summer 1959.

The River Vltava and the Castle, Prague, summer 1959.

All Quiet on the Vltava.

The River Vltava.  Unknown location, possibly near Prague.

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Days in the Countryside

The countryside is never far from Prague.

Dr.Seyfried near a camping area, assumed to be countryside near Prague. He seems to have acquired a flap cap, and a Czechoslovakian one, at that. Summer 1959.

Camping area with lake in the foreground. Assumed to be near Prague. Summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried by a village duckweed covered pond.  He is holding his cap and his shoes are highly polished, as usual.  Czechoslovakia, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried with Czechoslovakian colleague or host. Village pond in background, and village bell.   Fairly new looking electricity poles.  Czechoslovakia, summer 1959. 

Main road to unidentified country town with an old towered building.  Czechoslovakia, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried and week-end bags visiting, it is presumed, medical specialist Czechoslovakian colleagues in the countryside.

Many Prague residents long to have a weekend house/summer house in the surrounding countryside, and this is a tradition that goes back a long time.  It was the central story-line in Jiri Menzel’s Seclusion Near a Forest /Na samote u lesa (1976).

It looks like the gate is getting a coat of paint. The Mercedes that Dr. Seyfried and his US colleague are using is parked in the background.

Dr Seyfried in a meadow with a man with a hay rake. Both men wearing caps. A lovely summer’s scene in the Czechoslovakian countryside. Summer 1959.

Summer house in the countryside, duvets airing on the upstairs balcony, Dad doing a repair to the summer house, Mum podding peas or beans, two beach balls and three children and a pre-war cabriolet car parked in the shade of the pine trees. And a stack of hay on the right hand side. Idyllic scene, Czechoslovakia, summer 1959.

Seclusion Near a Forest (1976): Mum and Dad, and their two children in the back of the Skoda, setting off from their flat in Prague for the  nearby countryside.

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Pilsner Urquell/Plzenský Prazdroj

Dr Seyfried standing by Rokycany town sign.  Czechoslovakia summer 1959.

Rokycany is south west of Prague, on the main road to Pilsen (Plzen).  There would seem no reason for Dr Seyfried to have his photo taken at the town’s roadside sign.  It has no connection with brewing.  However, a wild speculation could be that as a younger man – 14 years before, – he was in the US Army in May, 1945 when it liberated Rokycany from German forces.  Rokycany had a significance as it was on an agreed demarcation line  between the US forces and the Soviet forces to the east of the town.  An alternative  speculation is that a friend of his back in the US, knowing he was going to visit Pilzen asked him for a photo of post-war Rokycany.  The photo has been wrongly exposed – it is unlikely it is night-time.  Rokycany is only 42 miles from Prague and 14 miles from Pilsen.

Civilians & GIs and GIs dancing with Czech Women, main square Pilsen.  The US 2nd Infantry Division entered Pilsen on 7 May, 1945, relieving the 16th Armoured Division.   photo source militarycarclub.cz

US forces entered this part of Czechoslovakia from the west, crossing from the German border.  It may be that they, or another Division entered and liberated Rokycany on the same day.

Dr Seyfried standing outside the Pilsner Urquell brewery, summer 1959. We have seen the gent on his left in some of the Prague based photos. 

The Pilsner Urquell brewery, circa 2013.  Image acknowledgement Google Street View.

Dr. Seyfried watching workmen roll barrels in the Pilsner Urquell brewery, summer 1959.

Dr Seyfried points to the sign of the HQ of Plzenske Pivorary (Pilsner Urquell/Plzensky Prazdroj).  The smaller letters indicate it is a “National Company”   The brewery was State owned in 1959.  Part of the brewery can be seen on the left.

Dr Seyfried leans on the street board of the Prazdroj  Restaurant.

Dr Seyfried by the street board of the Prazdroj Restaurant, with Czechoslovakian colleague or host.

Inside the Prazdroj Restaurant, Pilsen/Plzen.   Summer 1959.

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Although there was a demarcation line between US and Soviet Forces at Rokcany, the Yalta Agrrement gave the Soviet Union the right to oversee elections in Czechoslovakia, as well as Poland, Hungary, eastern Germany, Romania, and Bulgaria.  Systematically from 1945 the Russian Soviet Union destroyed the fledgling democracies using what the Hungarian Communist Leader Rákosi in a 1952 secret session called “Salami Tactics” – piece by piece, bit by bit.  The occupying Soviet military/ administration insisted on Coalitions/Popular Fronts whilst elections were arranged, whilst at the same time insisting that local communists (most of whom had spent their war in Moscow) be given the powerful Ministry of Interior posts.

Elections were fixed, or where there was a strong pre-war democracy, such as in Czechoslovakia, the democratic politicians were undermined, or accused of working for the U.S..  There were threats, show trials, imprisonment and in some cases executions. By 1950 all of these liberated countries had become colonies of the Soviet Union, run by the local Communists.  There had been a restlessness and demonstrations by the subject populations as early as 1953 in East Germany, 1955 in Poland and the Hungarian Uprising in 1956.

In 1968 – 9 years after these photos were taken in the summer of 1959 –  Czech Communist leader Alexander Dubcek tried to contain the demands from within the country for greater freedom by introducing some liberalisation. He resisted pressure from Moscow. The Russians were not having it.  In the largest military attack on a European country since the end of the Second World War, the Russian Soviet Union and their Warsaw Pact forces invaded Czechoslovakia in August. It was another 21 years before Czechs and Slovaks would regain the freedom they had had before 1939.

“Protester confronts Soviet tank, morning of 21 August 1968, Main Square, Bratislava, Slovakia.” photo Ladislav Bielik.

“Protesters throw stones at the Soviet tanks entering Prague.”    Photo source Czech Press Agency archive.

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Footnotes

1. Professor Miroslav Jaros, (1897 – 1970).  “Completed his medical studies in 1922 and worked as an operative at the Surgical and First Obstetrics clinic in Prague…  In 1927 he took a study trip to France, and in the same year he was assistant at the Prague Orthopedic Clinic…. In 1958 he was appointed head of the Orthopedic Clinic and in 1967 the chair of the Orthopedic Department of the 1st Medical Faculty of the Charles University…” – source http://www.zdrav.cz

In addition, Karel Cerny, Head of the Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Praha/Prague has kindly added further information in an email to the author: “He was head of the Orthopedic Clinic between 1958-1970.  Jaros was a member of several Czech and foreign scientific societies and between 1968-1970 also a member of the scientific board of the faculty.  He is one of the founding personalities of modern Czech orthopedics“.

2. See Stalin Monument (Prague) from Wikipedia, and Radio Prague item, May 2016, both online.  In addition, there is a 2016 report that a feature length film is being made about the Monument sculptor Otaker Svec.

3. See the  short film  on You Tube: Vetesnictvi Eduard Capek (1966).

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The articles written, or co-written by Dr A Seyfried listed in Pubmed are reproduced below the “Coming Soon” section.
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Coming next, early April, 2018

US Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960

Part 3:  Hungary, Summer 1959 & Spring 1960

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Listing for Dr A Seyfried 1999 – 1953, sourced from Pubmed

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US Orthopaedic Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960. Part 1: Poland and Bulgaria

US Doc in Eastern Bloc 1958 – 1960

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Photos from the petegrafton collection

Part 1: Poland & Bulgaria Summer 1958.

Zagorz, south-eastern Poland. US Doc, believed to be Dr A Seyfried, on the right.  Summer, 1958. 

Unidentified town, or city suburb street, perhaps Warsaw.   Poland. Summer 1958.

The Background

US Doc, an orthopaedic specialist, in Prague, summer 1959.  His name is believed to be Dr. A. Seyfried.

We have, at the moment, no idea how it was that the American Doc, believed to be Dr A Seyfried, an orthopaedic specialist, was visiting Communist controlled countries in the Eastern Bloc. (My very grateful thanks to Liz Willis, former librarian with the Medical Research Council, London, for searching and locating in Pubmed papers written by a Dr A Seyfried. By their speciality – mostly in arthritic and rheumatoid conditions, and period of publication – 1953 – 1999,  and that these papers were mostly published in Polish specialist publications, and one published in a Czech  publication, we can be reasonably sure this is the one and same person. The full Pubmed list is at the foot of this Post.)

The Cold War was at its height – the Hungarian Uprising had been put down by Soviet tanks and military in October 1956 –  less that 18 months before these photos were taken in Poland, and Poland itself had had significant demonstrations in Poznán in 1955 against the Stalinist Soviet/Communist regime, which shook the Communist hierarchy and brought temporary “liberalisation” which turned out to be temporary concessions by the Polish Communist leader Wladyslaw Gomulka.

It may be that Dr.Seyfried, and a colleague were working for, or attached to the World Health Organisation in Geneva.  In transparencies from Czechoslovakia a Mercedes with Swiss plates is shown.

The photos – Kodachrome transparencies – were mostly taken by a colleague – possibly also a visiting US doctor – of the “US Doc”.  They were bought on ebay in 2008.  The seller had additional sets of photos taken  – by the same source –  of visits to Czechoslovakia and Hungary in 1959 and 1960, which will be appearing during March, 2018 on petegraftonphotos.com

Kodachrome transparency and mount, processed September, 1958.

Only a  very few of the transparency mounts had an identifying name – place, or person. The majority didn’t.  The ebay seller batched the sales under country, and year.  The year can be identified by the Kodak lab  date stamp on the transparency mounts.

The transparencies shown here are selected first by the orthopaedic interest, and then by local photos, outings and so on.  They are a rare colour chronicle of aspects of everyday life, and civic life,  in countries that were to live under Communist/military control  in Eastern Europe for a further 32 years from when they were taken. And, of course, they show orthopaedic practices and care of children and adults at that time.

Please use the Leave a Reply facility to get in touch if you can identify towns, places, people, or anything you spot and can clarify.  It would be very much appreciated.

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Poland

Orthopaedic  Practice

Childrens Hospital, Zagorz, south-eastern Poland. Possibly Dr Kowalski, Summer, 1958. The literal translation on the sign reads “Educational Institute for Children” and the town is identified as Zargorz, in south-eastern Poland.  It is suggested that the “Institute for Children” is a children’s home/hospital for general health issues.  My thanks to Darek Machaj for the translation of the sign.                                                                    

“Dr Seyfried, Kowalski’s Hospital”. If the note on the transparence storage box is the match for the transparency, Dr Seyfried would be the “US Doc”, on the right. It is assumed it is the Polish Doctor Dr Kowalski standing next to him.

Young boy in hospital cot, believed to be Zargorz.

Young children with orthopaedic problems outside on cot beds, believed to be Zagorz.

Nurse and young children with crutches, orthopaedic unit, believed to be Zagorz.

Young child with crutches, with nurse, orthopaedic unit, believed to be Zagorz.

“Spine tools”. Annotation on Index sheet of transparency storage box.

“Spine tools” (2). annotation on Index sheet of transparency storage box

Very young children in outside area, with parallel bar walking aid, orthopaedic clinic, believed to be Zagorz.

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Meeting and Observing Polish People.

Primary class children out for a walk, believed to be Zargorz.  Possibly the River Oslawa down from the road.

Polish men (and boy) in traditional outfits. US Doc in grey suit on the right.  Unknown location.

Polish men, some in traditional outfits, with the US Doc and assumed to be Polish colleague, or host, in blue shirt.  Note church behind them. Unknown location.

Entry to church area. Unknown location.

Woman in green costume, going to church. Unknown location.

Young girl and women in traditional costume walking to church. Unknown location.

Women entering the church. Unknown location.

Country area. Woman waiting at a bus stop, men in traditional costume, a horse eating hay from a sack and railway sidings. Unknown location, but possibly near the above photos of men and women in traditional costume.

A visit to a house in the countryside. Note the chicken, the apple trees and the bare-chested man taking a break, with building work in the background. No I.D. for the formerly dressed woman, or for the location.

Note the ramp up to the chicken house and the short piece of plank to stop chickens wandering into the attached dwelling. Unknown location.

Best summer dresses on, and smart casual gent, for the American visitor/s.  Unknown location.

A lovely summer’s day in Poland, 1958 and a smiling group of country women and girls. The smart casual gent in the dark blue shirt is in the background looking at how the building work is going. Unknown location.

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Warsaw/Warszawa

Statue of Workers, with the US Doc, Dr Seyfried.   Believed to be Warsaw.

Statue of Workers, believed to be Warsaw. The gent in the western style suit is perhaps the US Doc’s US medical colleague, and if so, he is the one who is taking the bulk of the photos that we see in this collection of Eastern Bloc photos. 

Urban street scene, Poland summer 1958.  Possibly Warsaw.

“Warsaw Stadium”, written on Index sheet of transparency storage box.

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Elsewhere in Poland, Summer 1958.  “Unknown locations”.

It is a 243 mile drive (391 Km)  from Warsaw to Zagórz and Zagórz is close to the border with the Ukraine, and with Slovakia (Czechoslovakia as it was, in 1958).  The following photos are assumed to be within Poland, for lack of any other identifying evidence.

Level crossing, edge of rural village. Horse and trap, children and student.  Poland 1958.

Rural town – building repairs. Note the old style wheel barrow with wooden wheel, just off centre. The barrow design goes back at least to the Middle Ages. Also a cable/hose (water?) lying on the dusty road. Poland 1958

The same road and hose pipe as in the previous photograph.  Dr. Seyfried having his photograph taken with a lady with a good suit, hat and handbag – a Polish medical specialist colleague?  To their side, cobblestones.  Poland 1958.

Formal municipal park assumed to be in a medium-sized town.  Note the pre-1939 studio plate camera on the tripod, foreground right.  Poland 1958.

The same park with US Doc and young summer frocked woman. Possibly a Polish Tourist Agency Host (if so she would possibly also be a Communist Party member, and, either way, she would be required to report back to the Polish secret police, the “SB” on the US Doc’s attitudes/views, when in her company).  The car parked in the background (which may be their form of official transport in this part of Poland) has been identified as probably a Polish made Warszawa M20, modelled on the Russian Gaz M20 Podeba.  My grateful thanks to Peter Frost for identifying this car, and others that follow in this Post.  Also my thanks to Mel Holley of the IFA Club and Ian Reid in facilitating the identification.

Dr Seyfried standing by a partially built Alpine type wooden house. Note the stooks of hay further up the slope.  Probably in the Carpathian Mountains area.  Poland 1958.

US Doc and others by a new Alpine style house and attached barn. Note the size of the over-hanging eaves, typical of such alpine buildings. It looks like a Warszawa M20 car. Probably in the Carpathian Mountains area. Poland 1958.

View of fortified town. Glimpse of river below. US Doc in centre of photo. Poland 1958.

Two Americans on the right, assumed to be with the US Doc. The car with the American styling has been identified by Peter Frost as a French made Simca Vedette Versailles.  It seems to have CD (Corps Diplomatique) plates. Unknown location. Note the concrete steps, on the left, up to the grass, and kerb stones, indicating some kind of municipal/civic feature.  Despite the lushness of the greenery it is possible this is Bulgaria and not Poland. The man being given a light is possibly their Bulgarian Tourist Agency/minor official attached to them for Bulgaria.  See photos below. 1958.

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Bulgaria. 

Untarmacked highway in the countryside, with oxen pulled farm cart, husband and wife, and a calf. Bulgaria 1958.

“Committee for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries”and the American Doc, Dr Seyfried.   The unsmiling man with him has the look of a Communist Party functionary. Going by the body language and physical space between them, the “Friendship” is very guarded.  The location is outside the Committee HQ in Boulevard Ruski 5, Sofia, Bulgaria, Summer 1958. (See below on a released declassified CIA document on the function and distribution of Committees for Friendship and Cultural relations with Foreign Countries. It is from this document that we can identify the address of the above photo)

A Top Secret  1957 CIA report on the function and distribution of Committees for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries was declassified in 2000.  These Committees were fronts for information gathering on the military, economic, industrial and other expertise of foreign countries.  It may be that all of Dr. Seyfried’s visits to Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Hungary were set-up and facilitated by these committees.  We don’t know whether he and his US colleague/s, at this time, were attached to the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva, or were senior staff of US Teaching Hospitals.  It is assumed that they and other visitors out-with the host country would be briefed (depending on their speciality) on keeping circumspect in some areas of  their expertise.  It is also probable that some foreign visitors would also be involved in intelligence gathering themselves, at the request of their own security services.

It seems that Dr.Seyfried and his US medical colleagues were given a fairly slack rein in their social contact with their host orthopedic colleagues and their families.  It is assumed a lot of medical specialities were benign, including orthopedics.  Some, such as microbiology, with it’s possible uses in germ warfare, would not have been.

Oxen drawn cart in the countryside, with wife and husband. Unknown location, believed to be Bulgara. Summer 1958.

US Doc listening to elderly head-scarfed Bulgarian woman holding a loaf of bread.  The young man to the right, with the see-through shirt and pack of cigarettes in the breast pocket is possibly an attached host from the Tourist Agency, or Committee for Cultural Relations.  He appears in a further photo. Unidentified  town.  Bulgaria. 1958.

Elderly woman on a donkey in a covered, shop-lined bridge. US Doc to his left looking at a brochure. The skylights are open at top. Warm summer’s day in Bulgaria. Unidentified town. 1958.

American Doc, second American and Bulgarian host, seen in two earlier photos.  The acronym, on the building (church?), in the Bulgarian cyrillic alphabet has yet to be understood.  Bulgaria, summer 1958.

Women with a child, and behind them a bare-footed woman, possibly Roma. Bus further down the street with man hauling up luggage to the roof. Newly planted pavement trees.The drab military green lorry is not necessarily an army lorry. Unidentified rural town. Bulgaria, summer 1958.

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The articles written by Dr A Seyfried and listed in Pubmed are reproduced below the “Coming Soon” section.

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Coming soon, mid March 2018

US Doc in Eastern Bloc

Part 2: Czechoslovakia, Summer 1959

Entrance to the Universita Karlova Klinika Pro Orthopedickov, Prague/Praha. US Doc centre, with possibly the clinic director on his left. Summer 1959.

The Swiss registered Mercedes used by the US Doc in Czechoslovakia. Believed to be near the centre of Prague. 1959.

Orthopaedic clinic, Prague.   Summer 1959.

A countryside visit to the family/friends of a Czech orthopedic colleague. Summer 1959.

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Listing for Dr A Seyfried, 1999 – 1953, sourced from Pubmed.

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Gone Glasgow/Cool Glasgow

Gone Glasgow/Cool Glasgow

All Photos:  Pete Grafton

Gone Glasgow    Odeon, Renfield Street.

Cool Glasgow   Sauchiehall Street

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Gone  Glasgow

The original Kings Cafe, 2002.

C&A, Sauchiehall Street, 1999.

Glasgow Apollo demolition, 1989.

Grass on George Square, July 1999. Now tarmacked over, for “Events”.  No grass now to picnic on, have your lunch or chill out.

Daggs “The Gardeners Shop”, Bath Street, 2004.  After 92 years in business it closed in June 2005.

Daggs “The Gardeners Shop”, 2004.  Always a friendly, knowledgeable staff who knew their Epicure potato from an Arran Pilot.

The best baccy, fag and cigar shop in Glasgow – Herbert Love’s in St Vincent Place, just off George Square. Closed December, 2007.

The Rubaiyat, Byres Road. Closed.

Odeon, Renfield Street, December 2003. Note Evening Times seller

Odeon, Renfield Street, closed, 2007.   Still an Evening Times Pitch.

Closed Odeon, and one of those afternoons.  2007.  Still an Evening Times vendor.

Franco’s, Central Station. 1997.

Franco’s, Central Station, January, 2004.

Franco’s, Central Station, and some of the wonderful staff, summer 2002. And no, unfortunately I never did get ’round to photographing the man himself – Franco.

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Cool  Glasgow

Supercuts, and super style, Central Station, Glasgow, opposite from Franco’s.  June 1999.

Supercuts too. The sharp end of cool. Glasgow Central Station, June 2002.

No one needs a catwalk when you’ve got Central Station. Glasgow, August, 2003.

How to wear a blazor, and style your hair. Glasgow Central Station, August, 2003.

 Glasgow, July, 1999.

Young couple, Argyle Street, June, 1999.

Richard Burton look-a-like motorcycle cop, Argyle Street. 1999. Dillons bookshop and Strathclyde Police both gone.

Eco demo woman, St Enoch Square, June, 1999.

Into town, meet a few pals. Central Station, March 2003.

Dog and his man. Central Station, March 2003.

Glory Box.   Buchanon Street end of Sauchiehall Street, June 2003.

Uefa Cup final, Glasgow. 2007.  Programme seller.

‘That’s brilliant.’   Photo booth, Glasgow Central station, August 2003.

Cool dude. Glasgow Central, August, 2003.

Central Station, Glasgow,  August, 2013.   Brilliant hair styling, great suit.

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Pete Grafton Photo Posts coming in  March & April 2018

U.S. Doc in Eastern Bloc, 1950s.

Photos from the Pete Grafton Collection

US Doc, on left, believed to be an orthpedic surgeon, in front of Communist Party street posters.  Prague, July 1959

Little girl and specialist nurse, orthopedic clinic, believed to be Prague. July 1959.  Photo taken by U.S. Doc.

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Dawlish: Is it a Bird, Is it a Plane?

A Happening.

Photos by Pete Grafton.

Dawlish.  Summer, 2016.

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Photo Exhibitions – 1/60th sec on a wall.

Photo Exhibitions – 1/60th of a second on a wall

or

Looking at Ourselves

1/60th of a second shutter speed.   photo Pete Grafton

Izis “Paris Des Reves” Exhibition, Paris, 2010.

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Photo Exhibitions of the following photographers

Brassaï  (Gyula Halász) 1899 – 1984.  Hungarian.  Paris based.

Brassai in his dark room, 1932. Self portrait.

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Robert Doisneau 1912 – 1994.  French.  Paris based.

Robert Doisneau, Canal St. Martin, Paris. 1968.  photo Arnold Crane.

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Horst P Horst 1906 – 1999.  German.  Hamburg and then USA based.

Horst P Horst, 1949.  photo Roy Stevens.

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Izis  (Israëlis Bildermanas) 1911 – 1980.  Lithuanian.  Paris based.

Izis.   Self portrait. Believed to be 1970s.

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Lee Miller 1907 – 1977.  American.  Paris and London based, and then with advancing US troops post D Day, 1944 – 1945.  Virtually retired post 1945.

Lee Miller, 1944, Normandy. Unknown photographer.

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Martin Munkacsi 1896 – 1963.  Hungarian.  Hungary, Germany and then USA based.

Martin Munkacsi. 1935. Claimed to be a self-portrait.

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Albert Watson 1942 – present.  Scottish.  USA based.

Albert Watson.  photo Gloria Rodriguez.

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All photos of posters, exhibitions and exhibition photos:   Pete Grafton.

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Brassai, London 2001.

Brassai: The Soul of Paris, Hayward Gallery, London 2001.

Interior, Brassai’s Soul of Paris, interred in concrete at the Hayward Gallery, London 2001.

Le Patron’s verdict on the entombing of Brassai’s  Soul of Paris at the Haywood Gallery, London 2001.  Self portrait.

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Robert Doisneau, Paris 2010.

Robert Doisneau exhibition flyer, Paris, 2010.

The photo used on the flyer is Kids at the Place Hebert, Paris 18, 1957.  La Piscine bar is still in business, but the coiffeur and the three story building it was part of has been demolished. A single story small mini-mart now sits on the corner.

Queuing for the Robert Doisneau exhibition at the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation building, 2 Impasse Lebouis, Paris 14.  February, 2010.

The Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation building is small, and the upstairs exhibition space can only accommodate so many viewers at one time.

More queuing for the Robert Doisneau exhibition at the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation building. February, 2010.

The spiral staircase linking the ground floor and the exhibition room of the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation, Paris.   February, 2010.

Like some other venues, it was not possible to discreetly take photos of the exhibition area and the photographs.  Many photo exhibitions have a ban on all photography.  If the exhibition space is reasonably large, does not have too many CCTV cameras, nor heavily staffed by attendants, then discrete photography with a small rangefinder camera with a quiet shutter such as an Olympus RC is possible.  The irony is, most or all of the photographers featured in this Post would themselves have taken photos if they could in similar circumstances. A ban on using a tripod, a ban on flash photography makes sense,  but the ban on all photography at some venues is mystifying, particularly when several prestigious exhibition areas allow photography. (Views of Robert Doisneau’s wonderful photographs are available at robert-doisneau.com)

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Horst P Horst, London 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, National Portrait Gallery, London.  March 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London. March 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London. March 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London.  March, 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London.  March 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London. March 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London.  March, 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London. March, 2001.

Horst P Horst exhibition, NPG, London.  March, 2001.

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Izis, Paris 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition flyer, 2010.

Izis marks the spot (for the contractors).   Izis exhibition, Hotel de Ville, Paris, February, 2010.

Queuing. “Next” . Izis Paris exhibition.  February, 2010.

Advertisement for Izis Paris exhibition on the side of the Hotel De Ville, Paris.  February, 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February, 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February, 2010.

Izis Paris Exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris Exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Photo of Brassai. Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Photos taken in London 1953.  Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

The street above on the left was Hampden Crescent, which was razed to the ground in the early 1960s to make way for the Westway dual carriageway (the A40).  By a curious coincidence a visiting German photographed the same street a year later.  His name was Hans Richard Griebe and his 1954 photos are at londontown54.com  His photo of Hampden Road is in Chapter 15.  The Izis photo below was also taken in 1953, and appeared with the Hampden Street photo in The Queen’s People, The Harvill Press, London, 1953.

Izis Paris exhibition, February, 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, February 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition – still popular, May 2010.

Izis Paris exhibition, still queuing, May 2010.

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Lee Miller, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, 2001.

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Martin Munkasci

Martin Munkacsi exhibition poster, Hamburg , May 2005.

(Note also poster for Robert Capa exhibition)

Martin Munkasci leaflet:  Symposium 22 and 23 April, 2005, Hamburg. 

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Willy Ronis

Willy Ronis exhibition poster, Paris.  July 2009.

Willy Ronis exhibition leaflet, Paris 2009.

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Albert Watson

City Art Centre, Edinburgh. 2006.

Albert Watson exhibition, Edinburgh, 2006.

Albert Watson exhibition, Edinburgh, 2006.

Albert Watson exhibition, Edinburgh, 2006.

 

Albert Watson “Visions” photo exhibition poster, Grossebergstr., Hamburg Altona. 2012.

 

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Coming after the New Year

Gone Glasgow 1985 – 2010

Odeon, Renfield Street, early December 2003.    “Now Booking Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King”     photo: Pete Grafton

Daggs, the Apollo, C&A, Franco’s Central Station, the original Kings Cafe, George Square before it was tarmacked over….. and more.

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Paris by Night

Paris  by  Night

photos by Pete Grafton.

Night-time scooterist looking at Audrey Tatou poster. Place de Clichy, Paris 18.  November, 2010.

Audrey Tatou and “De Vrais Mensonges” poster (Beautiful Lies).   Place de Clichy, Paris. 18. November, 2010.

Cinema, Place de Clichy, Paris 18.   November, 2010.

Harry Potter poster, “La Menace Est Partout” (Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows). Place de Clichy, Paris 18.   November, 2010.

Roi des Coquillages, by Place de Clichy, Paris 18.  November, 2010.

Near Place de Clichy, Paris 18. November, 2010.

La Boite a Pizza, by Place de Clichy, Paris 18. November, 2010.

Statue at Place de Clichy, at night.   Paris 18.  November, 2010.

“Je suis Une”, Montmatre street at night. Paris 18.  November, 2010.

Male mannequins in night-time Montmatre shop window. Paris 18.  November, 2010.

Night-time menu board, Montmartre. Paris 18.    November, 2010.

Boulangerie-Confiserie-Patisserie shop at night, with customers.  Rue Caulaincourt, Paris 18.  November, 2010.

The north end of Rue des Saules, Paris 18.   November, 2010.

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Moulin Rouge at night, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris 18.  February, 2010.

Les Petits Chevaux du Moulin Rouge horsebox, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris 18.  February, 2010.

Direction Stalingrad, Place de la Republique, Paris 11.   January, 2008.

Bicycle and post box at night, Place de la Republique, Paris 11.  April, 2008.

Man in night-time telephone booth, near Place de la Republique, Paris 11.   January, 2008.

Empty laundrette, night-time, near Place de la Republique, Paris 11.   January, 2008.

Eating alone on a bench, night-time, near Notre Dame, Paris 4.

Man walking his dog, night-time, Quai aux Fleurs, Paris 4.   January, 2008.

Skate-boarder and couple, night-time, Pont d’Arcole, Paris 4.   January, 2008.

Boulangerie-Patisserie, Rue de Fontaine, Paris 11.   April, 2008.

Rue de Fontaine at night, Paris 11.  April, 2008.

La Java building at night, Rue Fontaine, Paris 11.  April, 2008.

Belleville Metro and men in underpants, at night, Paris 10.  April 2008.

Flat sales window at night, in the Rue Caulaincourt area, Montmartre, Paris 18.  November, 2008.

“Le Monde en Coleurs” shop at night, Montmartre, Paris 18.  February, 2008.

Comestibles window at night with assistant looking at the photographer. Rue Ordener, Paris 18.   November, 2010.

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Coming Next, Autumn, 2017.

Photo Exhibitions Photographed: Izis, Lee Miller, Robert Doisneau, Horst P Horst…..

Izis exhibition, Paris.   November 2009.   photo Pete Grafton.

Queueing  for a Robert Doisneau exhibition at the Henri Cartier Bresson Foundation building, Impasse Lebouis, Paris 14.  February, 2010.   photo Pete Grafton.

Lee Miller exhibition, Edinburgh, June, 2001.   photo Pete Grafton.

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For use of photographs by Pete Grafton, use the the “Leave a Reply” facility to get in touch.

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America at Home 2: The 1960s Kodachromes & Ektachromes

America at Home

2:  The 1960s.  Kodachromes and Ektachromes.

“Fabian Teen Idol”, 1959,  Kodachrome.  No photographer I.D.  From Kodachrome: The American Invention of our World 1939 – 1959. Edited by Els Rijper.  Delano Greenidge Editions, New York, 2002.

The 1950s, in some ways, were the high point of amateur Kodachrome slides (transparencies) taken in the United States.  Things were changing in the 1960s.  Foremost was that the US Government took Kodak to court in the 1950s under  “Anti-Trust” laws and won a case that meant that Kodak had to relinquish the exclusive right to develop their own Kodachrome film.  As was pointed out in America at Home Part One, the chemicals that went into Kodachrome were complex – it was what gave the film its richness and its stability.  Unlike Kodak’s Ektachrome (less stable in storage), up until the US court ruling Kodak’s Kodachrome had to be processed in Kodak only photo laboratories.

Kodachrome Kodak processed transparency, 1962.   Source Pete Grafton Collection.

This was not preserving a monopoly – it was preserving the superior qualities of Kodachrome.  After the US court ruling Kodachrome film could be processed in any film laboratory.  This could mean the colour rich quality of Kodachrome was not always fully realised during processing.  In addition, some photo labs were sloppy when drying the film, so that dust stuck to it.

Kodachrome transparencies processed by non Kodak U.S. photo labs, 1960s.    Source Pete Grafton Collection.

Secondly, because of the US court ruling the price of Kodachrome dropped, as the price of Kodak photo lab processing was no longer included. The lower price meant it was more attractive to a greater section of the non-hobbyist photo snapping population.

Another factor that effected the colour quality of many Kodachromes from the 1960s onwards was that Kodak introduced a Kodachrome film that could work in poor or indifferent light: Kodachrome 11. It was a good film, but it  meant the film could be used in cheaper cameras  that had a limited range of shutter speeds.   They also had poorer quality, less sharp lenses.

The budget priced and very popular Kodak Instamatic camera, introduced in 1963 that used 126 format film.  Kodak produced Kodachrome and Ektachrome film in the 126 format for their Instamatic cameras.

UK packaging of Kodachrome 11.    Source Pete Grafton Collection.

Reverse of UK Kodachrome packaging of Kodachrome 11.  Note that US Anti-Trust decision did not apply to Kodachromes in Europe.   Kodachromes in the UK were processed by the Kodak film lab in outer London.  Source Pete Grafton Collection.

Of course, hobbyists with quality cameras continued to produce sharp, colour rich slides during the 1960s and into the 1990s, but there are more U.S. processed slides that turn up from those decades that are below par in terms of colour and sharpness, compared to the 1950s.  Maybe it is no accident that Kodachrome: The American Invention of Our World chooses to finish its selection in 1959, just at the point that the 1960s were starting.

However, the 1960s US Kodachromes and Ektachromes introduce a wider range of social and racial groups captured on film, and also chronicles an increasing interest in American Heritage, plus the invasion of the German VW Beetle.

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All slides (transparencies) reproduced below are from the Pete Grafton Collection.  By the 1960s all Kodak processed slides were date stamped on the mount, and this date is shown beneath the photo. Bear in mind that slides were sometimes processed a month or two, or longer, after the photos were taken.  Non Kodak photo labs mostly, but not always, did likewise.  Any annotation on the slide mount is reproduced beneath the photo, in quotes.  Because of their occasional colour shifts, and dodgy colour balance caused by poor processing or poor storage conditions Kodak Ektachrome slides (transparencies) are identified to distinguish them from the Kodachromes reproduced below.

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Family & Friends

No date, but probably early 1960s.   The parked Sunbeam Alpine was first manufactured in 1959, the parent company Rootes aiming it at the US market.  Ektachrome.

August, 1960.

July, 1961. Fungus damage, either caused by poor storage, or accenctuated by non-Kodak processing.

January 1962.  Non-Kodak lab processing.

October, 1962.

October, 1962.  A wonderful example of a Kodachrome at its best.  Taken with a quality camera.

April, 1963.

April, 1963.

July, 1963.

August, 1963.  Ektachrome.

“Barbara & Neil’s wedding, Nov 1, 1964.”   A VW Beetle noseying up against a home grown product.

July, 1965.  Extachrome.

July, 1968.

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Parade

February, 1967.  Ektachrome.  The location is Tampa – see the Falk’s of Tampa sign, and the occasion is the week of the Florida State Fair.  Even though it is Florida, some seated watchers have rugs over their laps.  Above them, Julie Andrews stars in ‘Hawaii’.

June, 1968. Unknown location. American Legion members are marching with the Stars and Stripes, but a German VW Beetle is ambushing them to their left. Although this is a Kodachrome it has been processed in a non Kodak photo lab.  Note the uncharacteristic blue tinge and the vertical tram lines off centre, probably caused by acccelerated mechanical or hand drying.

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Excursions and Vacation

June, 1960.  Non Kodak processing photo lab.

January, 1961.

March, 1961.

December, 1962.

July, 1963.

September, 1963.  Antelope Valley is in Los Angeles County, California.

September, 1963.

December, 1964.  The lady is Lori, who will appear later. 

July 1965.

July, 1965.

July, 1965.

August, 1965.

August, 1965.  

October, 1966.

October, 1966.

August, 1967.  Ektachrome.  

August, 1967.  Ektachrome.  

October, 1967.

October, 1967.

May, 1968.

July, 1969.  Eagle River is in Keweenaw County, Michigan.

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Work & Service

March, 1961.  Presumed to be Forest Rangers in the El Cariso Park, Los Angeles County.

March, 1961.   El Cariso Park area, Los Angeles County. 

March, 1961.  El Cariso Park area, Los Angeles County.

September, 1961.  

December, 1962.  The headline on the top board reads “Predicted Fire Behaviour”.  Presumed to be El Cariso Park area, Los Angeles County,

December, 1962.  Presumed to be the El Cariso Park area, Los Angeles County.

April, 1963.

October, 1965.

August, 1967.  John Moses Memorial Hospital was located in Minota, North Dakota.

August, 1967.  From the same source as the John Moses Memorial Hospital above.

November, 1968.

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Portraits of Women

June, 1960.

July, 1960.    Jackie Kennedy styling?

January, 1962.

April, 1963.

April, 1963.

July, 1968.

“Lori”. No slide mount date.

“Lori – Matador hat.”   No slide mount date.

“Lori.”  July, 1964.

“Lori.” May, 1966.

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My Pet

March, 1961.  

March, 1963.

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Christmas & Birthdays

“Joyce’s 12-25-61”.   Slide processed March, 1962.

December, 1968.   Ektachrone.

December, 1968.  Ektachrome.  Flippy Frogman.

December, 1968.  Ektachrome.

Slide processed August, 1969.

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The Next Generation (Passing the Baton On)

July, 1961.

June, 1965.  Ektachrome.

No slide mount date, non-Kodak film lab.  Believed to be early 1960s.

February, 1964.

Despite the winter coats the slide mount is stamped August, 1965.  Ektachrome.   Kodak Instamatic 126 format.

June, 1965.  Ektachrome

January, 1962.

July, 1961.

October, 1968.

November, 1965.

July, 1968. Ektachrome.

“L.L. Baseball.”   July, 1968.

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Coming next,  mid June, 2017

Paris By Night.

photos by Pete Grafton.

Scooterist looking at Audrey Tatou poster, Paris , November, 2010.   photo Pete Grafton.

Audrey Tatou and De Vrais Mensonges poster (Beautiful Lies).  Paris, November 2010.   photo Pete Grafton.

Les Petits Chevaux du Moulin Rouge,  February, 2010.   photo Pete Grafton

Moulin Rouge at night, February, 2010.   photo Pete Grafton.

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